It is said that that patient always knows the answer and it's the therapists role to develop the patient's insight.
There are many times of therapy, but there are a few things in common
Continuous positive regard
Start where the patient is
Encourage the patient to trust their instincts
Engage as many positive resources as possible
In the study of consciousness there is an appreciation for the differential roles of the left and right hemispheres. The right is the seat of primary consciousness, the left is more of a public relations agent. Do or say whatever it takes to survive.
A good therapists tries to cut through the patient's tendency to avoid that which is painful, but do it slowly and carefully, helping the patient bear the load, helping them process, helping them take responsibility, helping tell the story in a non-blameful way.